Scientific Literature

The scientific credits below support our work with regards to the importance of using a soil mix that has  a “wide range of particle size distribution”


Beardsell (1979) reported that a soil mix that is fine in texture (small particles) has a higher water holding capacity and is poorly aerated (low air porosity). He stated that a soil mix that is coarse in texture (large particles) is highly aerated (high air porosity) and has a low water holding capacity.


Fonteno ( 1993) reported that particle size distribution and pore space (air porosity) are used to describe the physical properties of a soil mix. These physical properties affect water holding capacity and air porosity.


Tilt (1989) went further and stated that “ Particle Size Distribution effects all other physical properties”


Pokorny & Henry (1984) reported that just because two different media has the same components, peat and vermiculite does not mean they have the same properties. And a soilless media is best described by its physical and chemical properties.


 Nkongolo  and Caron  (2006) reported that aeration (air porosity) and water holding capacity depends strongly on the size distribution and arrangement of the pores.


Beardsell (1979) further reported that a soil mix that has a high percentage of fines will have a high water holding capacity and will be poorly aerated (low air porosity) compared to a soil mix that has a low percentage of fines which is better aerated (high air porosity) and has a low water holding capacity.


Milks (1989) reported that air porosity will be increased by using coarse components and water holding capacity will be increased by using fine components


Fonteno (1988) reported that over compaction of a soilless media can reduce air space by 50% or even completely eliminate it


Beardsell 1979. Scientia Hortic. 11:1-8

Fonteno 1993. Acta Hortic:  (342) 197-204

Tilt 1987. Amer. Soc.Hort. Sci. 112(6):981-984

Pokorny & Henry 1984. Ameri. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109(6):774-776

Nkongolo & Caron 2006. Extension Lincoln University Jefferson City, MO 65102

Milks 1989. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.  114(1):57-61